Bio-detoxification of jatropha curcas cake using basidiomycetous fungi
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Jatropha curcas is a well decorated plant of the Euphorbiaceae family whose residue seed cake after biodiesel extraction can be used as an animal feed supplement due to its high nutrient content. Presence of anti-nutritive phorbol esters in the residue cake restricts its application in feed supplements. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify phorbol esters have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In this study, the biological treatment of the Jatropha curcas seed cake (JSC) was conducted in solid state fermentation with three basidiomycetous fungi isolated from native Fabaceae trees. The basidiomycetous fungi were cultured in synthetic media and grouped into three morphotypes. The morphotypes were inoculated into Jatropha seed cake to allow degradation of phorbol esters. Morphotypes 2 and 3 could utilize the seed cake for growth. Fermented seed cake was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to identify and track changes in ester functional groups. Morphotype 2 significantly (p<0.05) reduced phorbol esters, indicating activity of cell wall degrading enzymes released by the fungi. Therefore, Morphotype 2 has potential to be used for bio-detoxification of Jatropha seed cake. Further experiments are recommended to prove that the product of inoculation of Jatropha seed cake with morphotype 2 can be used as animal feed supplement.